Freshwater is a vital resource for human survival and is necessary for maintaining life on Earth. It aids industrial processes, agriculture, sanitation, and drinking needs. Additionally, a variety of plants and animals can be found in freshwater environments, which promotes biodiversity and ecological equilibrium. Ensuring food security, preventing waterborne illnesses, and promoting economic growth all depend on having access to clean freshwater. Freshwater supplies are under threat from pollution, climate change, and expanding populations, which highlights the need for conservation and sustainable management to protect this limited resource for present and future generations.
But at present, water pollution is still a major problem in the world today, and it comes from a variety of sources. Water bodies are heavily contaminated by industrial discharge, plastic debris, untreated sewage, and agricultural runoff that contains fertilizers and pesticides. Aquatic ecosystems, animals, and human health are seriously threatened by chemical contaminants, heavy metals, and microplastics. Furthermore, toxic algal blooms brought on by nutrient pollution lower oxygen levels and create dead zones in streams. Inadequate wastewater treatment and careless dumping continue to worsen water pollution despite laws and conservation efforts. To solve this serious environmental issue, we need to take coordinated action, enforce strict legislation, and raise public awareness.