STP Operational Costs:
Energy Consumption: Pumps, aeration systems, and other equipment in STPs, like in ETPs, require energy, which raises operating costs.
Chemicals: The use of chemicals for tertiary treatment in some advanced treatment methods in STPs may have an impact on operational expenses.
Maintenance: The cost of operating a business is influenced by the need for routine machinery and component replacement, repairs, and maintenance.
Labour Costs: The operation and maintenance of plants require skilled workers, which has an effect on operating budgets.
Sludge Handling: STPs produce sludge, which raises operating expenses because it needs to be disposed of or treated further.
Compliance and Monitoring: STPs incur expenses for testing, regulatory standard compliance, and compliance monitoring, just like ETPs do.